Research and monitoring for and with raptors in Europe
May 2010 - May 2015

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Work packages 5 (Best practice) and 6 (Capacity-building) contribute together to deliver EURAPMON objective 3:

“to spread best practices and build capacities in Europe for harmonised monitoring for and with raptors.”

The expected outcome from WP5 is EURAPMON Outcome 3:

Best practice guidelines and protocols available on web (and possibly in print), including for:  fieldwork, sampling, preparation, analyses; analytical quality assessment, quality control; data management, intercalibration, statistical approaches (e.g. power of monitoring in relation to sampling strategies); reporting, etc. building on existing best practice guidance.



Best practice sampling and contaminant monitoring protocol for raptors (pdf available here)

In May 2013 representatives from six countries gathered in Murcia, Spain, to attend the Workshop on “Setting best practices on raptor contaminant monitoring activities in Europe” funded by EURAPMON. The workshop developed a rough draft of the current protocol. The protocol was subsequently completed with the involvement of investigators from Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom. All contributors are experts in monitoring contaminants in raptors.

The aim of this sampling protocol is to provide guidance on types of best practice that will facilitate harmonisation of procedures between existing and emerging schemes and so maximise the reliability, comparability and interoperability of data. The methods here do not require use of anaesthesia on birds. This protocol covers the sampling of blood and feathers from live birds, addled and deserted eggs, internal organs and tissues from dead specimens, and other samples such as faeces, preen oil and pellets.

A short summary of the Best practice sampling protocol is also available (PDF). The short summar was also translated into several European languages and is available HERE.


In order to spread best practice of for raptor monitoring Raptors - a Field Guide to Surveys and Monitoring (Second Edition 2009) is now available on EURAPMON website (please see below).


Raptors. A Field Guide to Surveys and Monitoring (Second Edition 2009)

(Editors: Jon Hardey, Humphrey Crick, Chris Wernham, Helen Riley, Brian Etheridge & Des Thompson; published by Scottish Natural Heritage and The Stationary Office)

The is the 2nd edition of the field guide giving methods for surveying and monitoring raptors, covering all the species of diurnal raptors and owls that breed regularly in Britain and Ireland. It includes introductory sections on general surveillance and monitoring techniques and raptor breeding ecology, and individual accounts giving guidance on surveying each species. It also includes guides to raptor feathers and the growth of raptor chicks. The book was written and edited by a team from the Scottish Raptor Monitoring Group and draws on the collective experience of more than 300 raptor specialists, in particular members of the Raptor Study Groups. It was funded by Scottish Natural Heritage with assistance from the other Statutory Conservation Agencies in Britain and Ireland and non-governmental bodies concerned with birds of prey. The book aims to promote best practice for fieldwork, and is an excellent introduction for anyone beginning a raptor study. The feather photographs were supplied by Marian Cieslak and Boleslaw Dul, authors of the excellent field guide Feathers: Identification for Bird Conservation which is available from the Natura Publishing House ( 

Hard copies of the book, including a CD of key raptor calls, will soon be reprinted and will be available from: .